Guide to Mason Jar Aquaponics

In an age where sustainable living and DIY projects are becoming increasingly popular, mason jar aquaponics offers a unique and engaging way to grow your own food while minimizing environmental impact. Imagine having a small, self-sustaining ecosystem right on your kitchen counter—a beautiful combination of fish and plants working together to create a harmonious and productive mini-garden. This guide aims to take you step-by-step through the process of setting up and maintaining your very own mason jar aquaponics system.

Mason Jar Aquaponics

What is Mason Jar Aquaponics?

Just like any aquaponics system, a mason jar aquaponics imitates a symbiotic relationship between fish and plants in one recirculating environment. The only difference with other systems is instead of using large fish tanks and multiple grow beds.

A mason jar aquaponics system uses a glass jar that can hold at least a gallon of water and grow only a single plant. A mason jar aquaponics system also uses betta fish instead of common aquaponics fish like tilapia, carp, goldfish, and trout. It is because betta fish are suitable for small jars as they are not schooling fish and prefer to swim alone.

Materials for Mason Jar Aquaponics

1.  Mason Jar:

Choosing the right mason jar is crucial for the success of your aquaponics system. A quart-sized mason jar is typically ideal in providing enough space for both the fish and the plant roots to thrive. The jar should be clear to allow light for plant growth but can be partially covered to reduce algae growth if necessary. Wide-mouth jars are preferable, as they make it easier to insert and remove the net pot and to access the interior for maintenance. Additionally, make sure the jar is made of sturdy glass to withstand the weight of water and substrate.

2.  Fish:

Selecting the right fish species is essential for maintaining a healthy aquaponics system. When choosing fish, ensure they are healthy and adapt well to the confined space of a mason jar. The suitable fish for mason jar aquaponics include:

  • Betta Fish: These colorful fish are hardy and can thrive in smaller water volumes, making them a popular choice.
  • Small Goldfish: Another robust option, but they may require more frequent water changes because of their higher waste production.
  • Guppies: Small, easy to care for, and available in various colors, guppies are excellent for beginners.

3.  Plants:

Not all plants are suitable for mason jar aquaponics because of space constraints and nutrient availability. The best plants for this setup are:

  • Herbs: Herbs such as basil, mint, and parsley thrive well in aquaponic systems.
  • Small Greens: Leafy greens such as lettuce, spinach, and arugula are also great choices, growing quickly and requiring minimal care.

4.  Grow Media:

The grow media in your mason jar provides essential support for plant roots and helps anchor them in place. The common grow media used in mason jar aquaponics systems include:

  • Gravel: Inexpensive and widely available, gravel provides good support and surface area for beneficial bacteria.
  • Clay Pellets: Lightweight and porous, clay pellets are excellent for root support and promote healthy plant growth by retaining moisture and nutrients.

5.  Air Pump:

An air pump is vital for maintaining oxygen levels in the water, which is crucial for the health of your fish. A small, low-noise, air pump with an airstone attachment will suffice for a mason jar system. The airstone will disperse air bubbles to ensure even oxygen distribution and preventing stagnant water conditions. This only keeps your fish healthy but also promotes beneficial bacteria growth in the substrate and water.

6. Net Pot:

A net pot is a small, perforated container that holds the plant securely while allowing water and nutrients to circulate around the roots. The net pot should be appropriately sized to fit the mouth of your mason jar without falling through. It can be filled with your chosen grow media and should hold the plant stem or seedlings upright.

Our Recommended Mason Jars for Aquaponics

1. 2.5 Gallon Glass Jars with Lids

2.5 Gallon Glass Jars with Lids

These 2.5 gallon wide mouth glass jars is great forfor larger setups. They can provide ample space for fish and plant roots, making them ideal for maintaining a balanced aquaponics system. They are durable, easy to clean, and have wide mouth opening that help ensure the roots can have access to the water.

2. Kitchentoolz 1 Gallon Extra Large Glass Mason Jar

Kitchentoolz 1 Gallon Extra Large Glass Mason Jar

These jars are great for smaller aquaponics systems where space is a constraint. Their compact size makes them suitable for herbs and small plants, while still providing enough room for a small fish like a betta​ 

3. Anchor Hocking Heritage Hill 2 Gallon Glass Jar with Lid

Anchor Hocking Heritage Hill 2 Gallon Glass Jar with Lid

These jars offer a good balance between size and functionality. The wide mouth design facilitates easy planting and cleaning, and they are made from food-grade materials ensuring safety for both plants and fish.

How to Set Up Your Mason Jar Aquaponics System

1. Prepare the Jar: Clean the Mason Jar

  • Cleaning: Start by thoroughly cleaning the mason jar with warm, soapy water. This step is essential to remove any residues or contaminants that could harm your fish or plants.

2. Add Substrate: Place Gravel or Clay Pellets in the Bottom

  • Layering: Add a layer of gravel or clay pellets at the bottom of the jar. This substrate will provide a foundation for the plants and a surface for beneficial bacteria to colonize.
  • Depth: Aim for a depth of about 1-2 inches to ensure adequate support for the plants while leaving enough room for the fish.

3. Install the Air Pump: Ensure It Is Functioning Properly

  • Positioning: Place the air pump outside the jar and connect it to an airstone using an airline tube. The airstone should be placed at the bottom of the jar to disperse air bubbles evenly.
  • Testing: Plug in the air pump and ensure it is functioning correctly, producing a steady stream of bubbles. This will oxygenate the water and keep the environment healthy for your fish.

4. Insert the Net Pot: Secure It at the Top of the Jar

  • Placement: Fill the net pot with your chosen substrate, ensuring it is well-packed to support the plant. Insert the net pot into the mouth of the jar, making sure it fits securely and does not fall into the jar.

5. Add Water: Fill the Jar with Dechlorinated Water

  • Dechlorination: Fill the jar with water that has been treated to remove chlorine and chloramine, which can be harmful to fish. You can use a water conditioner or let the water sit out for 24 hours to naturally dechlorinate.
  • Filling: Carefully fill the jar, leaving about an inch of space from the top to prevent overflow when the net pot and fish are added.

6.  Add the Fish: Gently Place the Fish into the Water

  • Acclimation: Before adding the fish to the jar, acclimate them by floating their bag in the jar of water for about 15 minutes. This helps equalize the temperature and reduce stress.
  • Transition: Gently release the fish into the jar, ensuring they do not experience sudden changes in their environment.

7. Plant the Seedlings: Place the Seedlings in the Net Pot

  • Preparation: Choose healthy seedlings or small plants suitable for aquaponics, such as herbs or small greens.
  • Planting: Place the seedlings into the net pot filled with substrate. Ensure the roots are well-covered and the plant is securely positioned.
  • Positioning: Adjust the net pot if needed to ensure it remains stable at the top of the jar.

How to Maintain Your Mason Jar Aquaponics System

1.  Feeding the Fish: Daily

  • Frequency: Feed your fish once or twice a day with high-quality fish food appropriate for their species. Avoid overfeeding as uneaten food can degrade water quality.
  • Quantity: Provide only as much food as the fish can consume within a few minutes. Remove any excess food to prevent it from decaying and polluting the water.

2. Checking Water Levels and Quality: Daily

  • Water Levels: Ensure the water level remains consistent. Top off the jar with dechlorinated water if the level drops due to evaporation.
  • Water Quality: Regularly test the water for pH, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels using a water testing kit. Maintain the pH within the optimal range for both fish and plants (typically 6.8-7.2). Ammonia and nitrite levels should be zero, while nitrates can be present in low to moderate levels.

3. Inspecting Plant Growth and Health: Weekly

  • Visual Check: Examine the plants for signs of healthy growth, such as vibrant color and new leaves. Look for any signs of wilting, yellowing, or stunted growth.
  • Pruning: Trim any dead or yellowing leaves to promote new growth and prevent decay, which can affect water quality.

4. Cleaning the Substrate and Net Pot if Necessary: Weekly

  • Substrate Maintenance: Occasionally stir the substrate gently to prevent compaction and ensure even distribution of nutrients. If debris accumulates, rinse the substrate with dechlorinated water.
  • Net Pot Maintenance: Check the net pot for any blockages or algae buildup. Clean the net pot and the plant roots with dechlorinated water if necessary to ensure proper water flow and oxygenation.


Mason jar aquaponics is an exciting way to experience the wonder of aquaponics on a miniature scale. It's a rewarding project that allows you to witness the fascinating cycle of nature at work right in your kitchen. With a little care and attention, you can cultivate thriving herbs while providing a happy home for your finny friend.

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