The Ultimate Aquaponics Beginner’s Guide

Imagine a gardening system where you could effortlessly grow lush, vibrant plants and raise healthy, thriving fish within the same closed-loop ecosystem. 

If you're a beginner who wants to produce organic vegetables and fresh fish in your home, this Ultimate Aquaponics Beginner's Guide is your key to learning this gardening method. Whether you have a sprawling backyard or just a tiny balcony, aquaponics offers an opportunity to grow a diverse array of produce while protecting the environment.

This aquaponics for beginner's guide will discuss the basics of aquaponics, from learning the different components to walking you through the steps of setting up your own thriving aquaponic garden.

Understanding Aquaponics

Aquaponics is a method of growing food that combines aquaculture (the practice of raising fish) and hydroponic (a soilless way of growing plants). Through the combination of these two growing methods, aquaponics offers a way to grow food that is resource-efficient, environmentally friendly, and yields high-quality produce.

How Does Aquaponics Work?

In aquaponics, the waste produced by fish is converted by the beneficial bacteria into nutrients that plants absorb. The plants, in turn, filter the water for the fish. This creates a closed-loop system that uses 90% less water than traditional agriculture and can produce fish and vegetables in a small space all year round.

Aquaponics relies on a mutually beneficial relationship between fish and plants. Which involves fish excreting waste that is broken down into vital nutrients that plants use for nourishment. In return, plants act as natural filters that purify the water and allow the fish to thrive in a clean and healthy environment.


The Aquaponics General Cycle

The Benefits of Aquaponics

Here are some benefits of aquaponics.

  1. Sustainability: Aquaponics uses less water than traditional growing methods and doesn't rely on harmful chemicals or pesticides to produce fresh and healthy fish harvests, fruits, herbs, and vegetables. 
  2. High Yield: Aquaponics can produce a high yield of fish and plants in a small space all year round (if done in an indoor setup). Plants grow faster in aquaponics systems because of their constant access to nutrient-rich water. 
  3. Fresh, Nutritious Produce: Aquaponic systems can grow a variety of fresh produce that is high in nutrients and free from harmful chemicals. Because the plants grown in aquaponics are free from fertilizers and other chemicals. 
  4. Water Conservation: Aquaponics is an eco-friendly method of growing food. It uses up to 90% less water than traditional agriculture because the water is recycled through the system.
  5. Reduced Chemical Usage: In the aquaponic realm, fish waste and beneficial bacteria become the nutritional backbone of plant growth. It's a natural cycle that sidesteps the need for harmful chemicals or fertilizers.
  6. Year-Round Gardening: Aquaponics allows you to cultivate produce all year, regardless of weather conditions. This uninterrupted growing season means a constant supply of fresh, homegrown goodness.
  7. Space Efficiency: Aquaponics become your gardening solution if space is a problem. Its vertical growing potential and compact footprint make it a space-efficient marvel. You can stack layers of growth, maximizing yield in even the tiniest of spaces.
  8. Cost Savings: Aquaponics cuts down on ongoing costs by eliminating the need for traditional fertilizers and minimizing water usage. Plus, the potential for a consistent harvest means fewer trips to the grocery store.
  9. Sustainable Food Production: In a world striving for sustainable food sources, aquaponics reduces the strain on conventional agriculture, conserve resources, and foster a harmonious coexistence between food production and the environment.

Things to Consider Before Starting an Aquaponics System

Here are some important factors to consider in planning your aquaponics system. 

1. Personal Considerations

Choose an aquaponics system that you want to implement. You can choose between media-based systems, raft systems, NFT systems, or a combination of these systems.

  • What are the goals and purpose of your aquaponics system?

What is the purpose of your aquaponics system? What plants or fish are you planning to grow and raise? Are you going to eat your fish? These questions should be given thought to plan your system correctly and know what method will meet your goals and purposes.

  • Do you like to do-it-yourself (DIY)?

Do you like assembling things through (do-it-yourself)DIY, or do you prefer to purchase a ready-to-use free-made system? DIYing your own system or buying a free-made ready-to-set-up aquaponics system is one of the essential considerations you need to make in planning your aquaponics system.

DIY Aquaponics is trial and error but it can be a rewarding and fun learning experience. However, if you want a proven system that can run quickly and with technical support, you can purchase a free-made aquaponics system.

2. Environmental Considerations

A. Humidity: In an aquaponics system, the water flow is constant, so you must consider your space's natural evaporation and increased moisture. 

B. Water Spillage: Your fish tank or aquarium can leak. Therefore, the area where you want to create your system is an area that can get wet.

C. Lighting: Plants need light to grow. All plants require sunlight for photosynthesis, which converts light, oxygen, and water into carbohydrates (energy). Plants need this energy to produce, bear fruit, and bloom. 

Sunlight is the best source of light for plants in an aquaponics system. But with an indoor aquaponics system, you need to use grow lights to supplement the light requirements of your plants. Artificial lighting needs to be considered and carefully selected because plants absorb wavelengths at either end of the light spectrum, which we cannot see.

3. Location and Space Considerations

Here are some key considerations when choosing a location for your aquaponic system.

  • Access to natural light: Plants require enough light to grow, so choose a location where natural light or sunshine is accessible. 

  • Temperature: Choose a location where the temperature can easily be regulated. Consider installing a heater or air conditioner to maintain a consistent temperature.

  • Water source and drainage: Your aquaponic system will require a constant water supply, so choose a location near a reliable water source. Also, ensure that your location has adequate drainage to prevent water from accumulating around the system.

  • Electrical outlet: Your aquaponic system will require an electrical outlet to power the water and air pumps. So choose a location near an outlet or consider using an extension cord to reach a nearby outlet.

  • Ventilation: Proper ventilation is vital to prevent the buildup of humidity and to ensure that there is adequate airflow for the plants and fish.

DIY Aquaponics System


Types of Aquaponics Systems

The main types of aquaponic systems are media-based, raft systems, nutrient film techniques, and hybrid systems. Each one of these system has its own advantages and disadvantages, so choosing the one that best fits your needs and space requirements is essential.

1. Media Based Aquaponics System

The media-based system is the most popular type of aquaponics system. In this system, plants are grown in a medium, such as gravel or expanded clay pellets, that provide a surface for beneficial bacteria to break down fish waste and turn it into nutrients. The water is then returned to the fish tank.


Media based Aquaponics System Infographic

2. Raft System

Also known as the Deep Water Culture (DWC), the raft system of aquaponics is one of the most efficient aquaponics system designs. This system is often used in large-scale or aquaponic farming systems because of its mass production capability. 

In this system, the plants are suspended in rafts on top of the water in the fish tank. The roots of the plants dangle in the water, and the beneficial bacteria break down the fish waste, providing nutrients for the plants.

Raft System Aquaponics Infographic

3. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) System

The Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) is a hydroponic growing technique adapted to aquaponics because of its simple yet effective design that works well in some environments. This method uses horizontal pipes (PVC) with shallow streams of nutrient-rich water flowing through them. The NFT is famous for commercial aquaponics and is also helpful in urban places where space and food production are problems.

NFT System of Aquaponics Infographic

4. Hybrid Aquaponics System

A hybrid aquaponics system combines multiple types of aquaponics systems. Most commercial aquaponics use a hybrid system because of its efficiency and great use of space. One example of a hybrid system is a combination of raft and media based systems.


High Breed Aquaponics System

Components of an Aquaponic System

Aquaponics comprises several key components that work in harmony to create a thriving ecosystem. Let's take a closer look at these components:

  1. Fish tank - The fish tank provides a home for the fish, so it is important to choose a fish tank that is made of sturdy and safe material, like food-grade plastic or glass. Your fish tank's size should be determined by the number and type of fish you plan to raise and the size of your system.
  2. Grow bed - The grow bed is where your plants will grow. Ensure that your grow bed is durable and made of non-toxic materials. The size of your grow bed should be based on the size of your fish tank and the number and type of plants you plan to grow.
  3. Water pump - The pump is responsible for circulating water from the fish tank to the grow bed. Select a water pump with a flow rate that can support the needs of your plants.
  4. Air pump - An air pump is used to oxygenate the water in the fish tank.
  5. Tubing and fittings -Tubing and fittings connect the various components, such as the water pump, air pump, and grow bed.
  6. Plumbing: This is the intricate network of pipes and tubes that connect everything. Plumbing ensures the smooth flow of water from one component to another, ensuring every part of the system gets its fair share.
  7. Grow mediaGrow media provides a surface for beneficial bacteria to grow. Common grow media include gravel and expanded clay pellets.
  8. Aerator and Air Stones - Are used in the fish tank and media beds. Fish need oxygen. Aeration systems infuse the water with oxygen, keeping your fish happy and healthy.
  9. Grow Lights - Optional. This is mainly used in indoor systems.
  10. Heater - Optional. Using a water heater will depend on your location, fish species, and target water temperature.
  11. Monitoring System - A monitoring system is optional equipment that depends on your budget and how you want to manage your system.
  12. Timers and Controllers - are mainly used for lighting, pumping, and controlling the temperature.
The other materials you will need are the following:
  1. Water Quality Test Kit
  2. Cycling Kit
  3. Fish Food
  4. Fish Care Products
  5. Gardening Supplies (gloves, pruning shears, sprayer, etc.)
  6. Seeds and Seed Starting Supplies


Fish Tank for Aquaponics

Fish in Aquaponics

Fish are integral to aquaponics, and choosing the right species is essential for the success of the whole system.

Factors to Consider When Choosing Fish: Before you dive into the mesmerizing world of fish, consider a few factors to ensure they thrive in your aquaponics system:

  1. Water Temperature: Fish, like us, prefer certain water temperatures. It's crucial to select fish species that match the climate you can provide. Some fish enjoy warmer waters, while others prefer cooler environments.
  2. pH Levels: Just as plants have pH preferences, fish do too. Maintaining a pH range that suits both your chosen fish and plants is vital for harmonious coexistence.
  3. Growth Rate: Different fish species grow at different speeds. Some are rapid growers, while others take their time. Choosing species with similar growth rates can help maintain balance in your system.

Popular Fish Choices for aquaponics Systems:

  1. Tilapia: Tilapia is a warm-water fish that is popular for aquaponics enthusiasts. They grow quickly, reproduce readily, and are known for their hardiness. Their mild taste also makes them a culinary favorite.
  2. Catfish: With their efficient scavenging habits, catfish help keep your system clean. They tolerate a range of conditions and thrive in warmer waters.
  3. Trout: If you're in cooler climes, trout might be your fish of choice. They require cooler water temperatures and offer a delicious reward for your efforts.
  4. Koi and Goldfish: These ornamental fish aren't just pleasing to the eye; they also contribute to the system's nutrient cycle. Just remember, they're not for the dinner plate!
  5. Perch: Known for their adaptability, perch are a resilient choice for aquaponic beginners. They're easy to care for and provide a tasty treat as they grow.
  6. Barramundi: These tropical fish are favored for their rapid growth and culinary appeal. They adapt well to aquaponic systems and can be a rewarding choice.

Remember, each fish species has its unique personality and requirements. Researching and choosing fish that align with your system's conditions and preferences will set the stage for a harmonious aquaponic partnership.

Plants in Aquaponics

When you're growing plants in an aquaponic setup, a few key considerations come into play:

  • Plant Spacing: Just like a well-orchestrated performance, plants need their space to shine. Proper spacing ensures they receive adequate light, air, and nutrients without competing with each other.
  • Light Requirements: Plants need light for photosynthesis. Understanding the light preferences of your chosen plants helps you position them for optimal growth.
  • Nutrient Intake: Plants in aquaponics feast on the nutrients released by the fish and nurtured by beneficial bacteria. Finding the right balance of these nutrients is essential to ensure your plants thrive.
  • Common Plant Choices for Aquaponics Systems: You can grow almost all plants in aquaponics, depending on your system. Here are some plants that are commonly grown in aquaponics systems.

The beauty of aquaponics is that you're not limited to just these choices. Experiment with various plants to find the ones that resonate with your taste buds and your system's conditions. As you nurture your aquaponic garden, you'll witness a mesmerizing interplay between fish, plants, and beneficial bacteria, creating a lush tapestry of growth and sustenance.

Step-by-Step Guide to Setting Up an Aquaponics System

Ready to embark on your aquaponic journey? Here's a step-by-step guide to setting up your aquaponics system.

1. Preparing the Fish Tank, Grow Bed, and Plumbing Connections

  • Choose Your Space: Find a suitable location for your aquaponic system. It could be indoors, on your balcony, or in your backyard. Just ensure it gets adequate sunlight and is easily accessible.
  • Setting Up the Fish Tank: Clean and condition the tank to ensure it's free from harmful residues. Fill it with water, treating it as necessary to remove chlorine or other contaminants.
  • Installing the Grow Bed: Choose a compatible grow bed and fill it with a suitable growing medium. Ensure it's well-draining and provides ample support for your plants' roots.
  • Setting Up Plumbing: Connect the water pump and plumbing system. A smooth water flow between the fish tank and the grow bed ensures the system functions harmoniously.

2. Cycling the System and Establishing a Beneficial Bacterial Colony

  • Starting the Nitrogen Cycle: This is where the beneficial bacteria come into play. Add a source of ammonia to the fish tank to kick start the nitrogen cycle.
  • Monitoring Ammonia and Nitrite Levels: As the cycle progresses, ammonia levels rise, followed by the appearance of nitrites. These are signs that the beneficial bacteria are doing their job of converting toxic compounds into less harmful substances.
  • Introduction of Fish: Once ammonia and nitrite levels stabilize, it's time to introduce your fish. Start with a small batch and gradually increase the population as the bacteria colony expands to accommodate the waste produced.
  • Nitrate Accumulation and Plant Growth: Nitrites are eventually converted into nitrates, which serve as a feast for your plants. As your plants flourish, they absorb these nutrients, purifying the water for the fish.
  • Patience and Balance: Remember, aquaponics is a delicate dance of balance. Monitor water quality parameters like pH, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels regularly. Adjust as needed to ensure both your fish and plants thrive.

DIY Media Based Aquaponics System

Maintaining Your Aquaponics Setup

1. Regular Tasks for Maintaining Water Quality

Just like nurturing a delicate ecosystem, maintaining your aquaponic system is a labor of love that involves watching its vital signs. Here are some crucial tasks in maintaining the water quality of your system.

  • pH Monitoring: Regularly check pH levels to ensure they're within the optimal range for fish and plants. Fluctuations can affect nutrient availability and the overall well-being of your system.
  • Ammonia and Nitrite Levels: Regularly testing ammonia and nitrite levels help you gauge the health of your nitrogen cycle. Keep these parameters in check, as high levels can stress your fish and impede plant growth.
  • Nitrate Levels: Excessively high levels of nitrate can cause issues. So monitor nitrate levels and ensure they're at a level that benefits your plants without becoming detrimental.

2. The Importance of Fish Health and Feeding Schedules

Here's how to keep your fish happy and thriving:

  • Regular Observations: Spend time observing your fish. Look out for any signs of stress, disease, or unusual behavior. Early detection can prevent larger problems down the line.
  • Balanced Feeding: Fish needs food, but overfeeding can lead to excess waste and water quality issues. Establish a feeding schedule that provides enough nourishment without creating an imbalance.
  • Variety in Diet: Just like us, fish benefit from a diverse diet. Mix their meals with high-quality fish food, ensuring they receive a well-rounded nutrition profile.

3. Pruning Plants and Managing Pest Control in Aquaponics

  • Pruning: Regularly trim and prune your plants to encourage healthy growth and prevent overcrowding. Removing dead leaves and excess growth maintains the balance within your system.
  • Pest Control: In an organic aquaponic environment, pests can still appear. Keep a vigilant eye for any signs of pests and address them promptly with natural solutions to maintain the integrity of your system.
    Aeration in Aquaponics Fish Tank

    Troubleshooting Aquaponics Common Issues

    Like any growing method, there can be a few things that need to be addressed in managing an aquaponics setup. But fear not–troubleshooting is all part of the journey. So let's delve into some common aquaponics issues and how to troubleshoot them.

    1. Imbalanced Nutrient Levels: If your plants are looking lackluster or your fish seem stressed, nutrient imbalance might be the culprit. Test your water parameters and adjust your feeding and water changes accordingly. A balanced nutrient profile is key to a thriving system.
    2. Fish Health Issues: Fish can face their share of health issues. Look for signs of disease, like lethargy or unusual spots. Quarantine new fish before introducing them to prevent the spread of potential illnesses.
    3. Plant-Related Challenges: Sometimes, plants can display signs of nutrient imbalance, such as yellowing leaves or stunted growth. Address these challenges with tailored care and adjustment.

    Resources for Seeking Help and Further Troubleshooting

    1. Online Communities: The beauty of the digital age is the wealth of online communities devoted to aquaponics. Forums, social media groups, and websites are treasure troves of advice, shared experiences, and troubleshooting insights.
    2. Local Experts: Connect with local gardening clubs, aquaponics enthusiasts, or agriculture extension offices. These folks are often armed with hands-on knowledge and a willingness to help newcomers.
    3. Educational Resources: Books, webinars, and online courses provide in-depth guidance for beginners and experienced aquaponic gardeners. These resources can be a wellspring of wisdom for tackling challenges.

    Tips for Expanding Your Aquaponic Setup and Increasing Productivity

    Scaling up your setup can lead to even greater yields and a more fulfilling journey. Here's how to take your aquaponic adventure to the next level:

    1. Plan Carefully: As you expand, meticulous planning becomes your best friend. Consider factors like space availability, water and energy requirements, and the needs of your chosen fish and plants.
    2. Gradual Growth: Start small and scale gradually. This allows you to adjust to the increased demands of a larger system and prevents overwhelming surprises.

    Experiment and Adapt the System to Your Specific Needs

    1. Innovate: Don't hesitate to innovate. Test new growing mediums, tweak water circulation methods, or even introduce an unconventional species of fish or plants. Your aquaponic system is a canvas awaiting your strokes of ingenuity.
    2. Adapt to Your Environment: Your unique location and climate can influence your system's needs. Adapt your setup accordingly–whether it's creating shade for hot summers or implementing insulation for colder months.
    3. Trial and Error: Remember, not every experiment will yield immediate success. Trial and error are part of the journey. Embrace failures as valuable lessons that guide you toward your aquaponic masterpiece.

    Aquaponics Designs Ideas for Beginners

    Ready to pen your own aquaponic success story? Let these aquaponics home kits and designs inspire you:

    Home Aquaponics Kit Systems

    Home aquaponics kits are available in the market today. By choosing to buy ready-to-use kits, you can have a ready-to install aquaponics system that comes with instructions in your home. 

    1. Go Green Aquaponics System

    GoGreen Aquaponics System

    Buy This System

    This kit is excellent for beginners in aquaponics who want to take their first step. The kit comes in a "Single Grow Bed System" or "Double Grow Bed System." The complete kit includes a grow media, pump, digital thermometer, plumbings, and a Master API water test kit. If you're a beginner, this kit is excellent because it includes instructions and 5 hours of short aquaponics online course.

    2. AquaUrban 60 Gallon Aquaponics System

    The AquaUrban Aquaponics System


    Buy This System

    You can buy and install this complete home kit aquaponics system indoors or outdoors. This home kit includes 60-gallon fish tanks and a grow bed made from thick, UV-protected, food-safe PE plastic.

    DIY Aquaponics Systems Designs

    An aquaponics setup can be expensive to buy or build. However, you can create your aquaponics system using recycled materials do-it-yourself (DIY) and get higher food yields for your home. Here are three aquaponics system DIY ideas for you to get inspired.

    1. DIY Bathtub Aquaponics System

    DIY Bathtub Aquaponics System

    Build This System

    Building your own system by using recyclable materials is a low-cost way to start if budget is an issue. This DIY bathtub aquaponics system is an example of what creativity can build. This system uses two standard recycled bathtubs.

    A bathtub aquaponics system works well and is very simple to operate. This system will produce good results if correctly managed, and what's excellent with aquaponics is you can quickly expand later on if you want a more extensive system.

    2. DIY One Barrel Aquaponics System

    DIY One Barrel Aquaponics System

    Build This System

    You will need a barrel, drill, and jigsaw to build this simple aquaponics system. This step-by-step guide with photos explains the process of making the single-barrel aquaponics system. This aquaponics system is excellent for beginners who want to start small and save on start-up costs.

    3. DIY Small Aquaponics System

    Build This System

    This small DIY aquaponics system is great for indoors or in places with limited space. This system shows you do not need a large area to create your aquaponics system. In this video, the grower set up the aquaponics on the second-floor balcony, and plants were grown in pipes and net cups.


    Thank you for taking the time to read our guide. In this guide, we included all the essential steps you need to know to set up and keep an  aquaponic garden running smoothly. 

    As you embark on your aquaponic adventure, remember that each challenge is an opportunity to learn, and every setback is a stepping stone to growth. Whether starting small on a windowsill or a grand aquaponic setup, your journey is yours to sculpt, cultivate, and cherish.



      7 Responses

      vladimir sanovic

      vladimir sanovic

      April 13, 2024

      just to thank you for your information

      Nathaniel H

      Nathaniel H

      October 14, 2023

      Lots of great info in the article.

      I bought some fresh cilantro the other day with a robust root system. Felt it was a waste to throw it out so I planted one stem in my tank (small gravel substrate). And punched a few holes in a new sponge I had, and am floating 3 more stems on the top.

      I have 1 Bala shark, 1 red tail shark, 1 ruby barbs, 2 red sword tails and 1 pleco in a 55 gallon tank. I have other live plants submerged as well.

      Any concerns with the set up? I see the proper way is not to have the roots in the water with the fish.

      Carl Jamison

      Carl Jamison

      February 08, 2022

      This website was very helpful, but at the same time, I am now conflicted. I have always wanted to get involved with aquaponics, but after reading this I now have type 2 diabetes and am addicted to goat yoga.

      Mike Condie

      Mike Condie

      September 04, 2021

      A fantastic resource for beginners and experts alike, thanks for your useful articles and sharing your knowledge, in such a well written form.



      August 15, 2021

      Thank you for the articles. I have read many that are relevant to my intention to do an aquaponics gardening, very helpful. I am yet to recieve the book ordered for beginners on aquaponics. Tank you

      mohammad reza shamsian

      mohammad reza shamsian

      July 27, 2021

      just to thank you for your information it is going to be use full.


      Levine Siemu

      Levine Siemu

      December 24, 2019

      a developing country like ours needs to learn more about Aquaponics.

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